Your Brain on Poverty: Why Poor People Seem to Make Bad Decisions – The Atlantic


As Andrew Golis points out, this might suggest something even deeper than the idea that poverty’s stress interferes with our ability to make good decisions. The inescapability of poverty weighs so heavily on the author that s/he abandons long-term planning entirely, because the short term needs are so great and the long-term gains so implausible. The train is just not coming. What if the psychology of poverty, which can appear so irrational to those not in poverty, is actually “the most rational response to a world of chaos and unpredictable outcomes,” he wrote.

None of this is an argument against poorer families trying to save or plan for the long-term. It’s an argument for context. As Eldar Shafir, the author of the Science study, told The Atlantic CitiesEmily Badger: “All the data shows it isn’t about poor people, it’s about people who happen to be in poverty. All the data suggests it is not the person, it’s the context they’re inhabiting.”

via Your Brain on Poverty: Why Poor People Seem to Make Bad Decisions – The Atlantic.

13 Blacks Influencing Technology In a Major Way Today – Blerds

13 Black initiated businesses that are making great strides in technology. The list may surprise you.

Here is a list of 13 Blacks influencing technology today, according to Business Insider.

Condoleezza Rice, Board of Directors, DropboxEarlier this month, online storage startup Dropbox added Condoleezza Rice to its board of directors.As the former secretary of state and an adviser to the National Security Agency, having someone like Rice as a liaison to Washington, D.C., could be very helpful to Dropbox.

Condoleezza Rice 2014

via 13 Blacks Influencing Technology In a Major Way Today – Blerds.

Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life | Psychology Today #OYRchallenge

Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D

Racial microaggressions are the brief and everyday slights, insults, indignities and denigrating messages sent to people of color by well-intentioned White people who are unaware of the hidden messages being communicated. These messages may be sent verbally “You speak good English.”, nonverbally clutching one’s purse more tightly or environmentally symbols like the confederate flag or using American Indian mascots. Such communications are usually outside the level of conscious awareness of perpetrators. In the case of the flight attendant, I am sure that she believed she was acting with the best of intentions and probably felt aghast that someone would accuse her of such a horrendous act.

via Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life | Psychology Today.

List of historically black colleges and universities – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

School City State Founded Type Religious Affiliation Comment
Alabama A&M University Huntsville Alabama 1875 Public Founded as “Colored Normal School at Huntsville”
Alabama State University Montgomery Alabama 1867 Public Founded as “Lincoln Normal School of Marion”
Albany State University Albany Georgia 1903 Public Founded as “Albany Bible and Manual Training Institute”
Alcorn State University Lorman Mississippi 1871 Public Founded as “Alcorn University” in honor of James L. Alcorn
Allen University Columbia South Carolina 1870 Private African Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Payne Institute”
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Pine Bluff Arkansas 1873 Public Founded as “Branch Normal College”
Arkansas Baptist College Little Rock Arkansas 1884 Private Baptist Founded as “Minister’s Institute”[3]
Barber-Scotia College Concord North Carolina 1867 Private Presbyterian Founded as two institutions, Scotia Seminary and Barber Memorial College
Benedict College Columbia South Carolina 1870 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Benedict Institute”
Bennett College Greensboro North Carolina 1873 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Bennett Seminary”
Bethune-Cookman University Daytona Beach Florida 1904 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Bethune Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls”
Bishop State Community College Mobile Alabama 1927 Public Originally a branch of Alabama State College
Bluefield State College Bluefield West Virginia 1895 Public Founded as “Bluefield Colored Institute”
Bowie State University Bowie Maryland 1865 Public Founded as “Baltimore Normal School”
Central State University Wilberforce Ohio 1887 Public AME Church Originally a department at Wilberforce University[4]
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania Cheyney Pennsylvania 1837 Public The oldest HBCU. Founded by Quaker philanthropist Richard Humphreys as “Institute for Colored Youth”
Claflin University Orangeburg South Carolina 1869 Private United Methodist Church
Clark Atlanta University Atlanta Georgia 1865 Private United Methodist Church Originally two institutions, Clark College and Atlanta University
Clinton Junior College Rock Hill South Carolina 1894 Private AME Zion Founded as “Clinton Institute”[5]
Coahoma Community College Coahoma County Mississippi 1924 Public Founded as “Coahoma County Agricultural High School”
Concordia College, Selma Selma Alabama 1922 Private Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod Known as “Alabama Lutheran Academy and Junior College” until 1981
Coppin State University Baltimore Maryland 1900 Public Founded as “Colored High School”
Delaware State University Dover Delaware 1891 Public Founded as “The State College for Colored Students”
Denmark Technical College Denmark South Carolina 1947 Public Founded as “Denmark Area Trade School”[6]
Dillard University New Orleans Louisiana 1869 Private United Church of Christand the United Methodist Church Founding predecessor institutions: “Straight University” and “Union Normal School”
University of the District of Columbia Washington District of Columbia 1851 Public Founded as “Miner Normal School”
Edward Waters College Jacksonville Florida 1866 Private AME Church Founded as “Brown Theological Institute”
Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth City North Carolina 1891 Public
Fayetteville State University Fayetteville North Carolina 1867 Public Founded as “Howard School”
Fisk University Nashville Tennessee 1866 Private United Church of Christ[7] Named for Clinton Bowen Fisk
Florida A&M University Tallahassee Florida 1887 Public Founded as “State Normal College for Colored Students”
Florida Memorial University Miami Gardens Florida 1879 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Florida Baptist Institute in Live Oak”
Fort Valley State University Fort Valley Georgia 1895 Public Founded as “Fort Valley High and Industrial School”
Gadsden State Community College Gadsden Alabama 1925 Public Founded as “Alabama School of Trades”
Grambling State University Grambling Louisiana 1901 Public Founded as “Colored Industrial and Agricultural School”
Hampton University Hampton Virginia 1868 Private Founded as “Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute”
Harris-Stowe State University St. Louis Missouri 1857 Public Founded as “St. Louis Normal School”[8]
Hinds Community College at Utica Utica Mississippi 1903 Public Founded as “Utica Junior College”
Howard University Washington District of Columbia 1867 Private Founded as “Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and Preachers”
Huston-Tillotson University Austin Texas 1881 Private United Methodist Church /United Church of Christ Founded as “Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute”
Interdenominational Theological Center Atlanta Georgia 1958 Private Interdenominational
J. F. Drake State Technical College Huntsville Alabama 1961 Public Founded as “Huntsville State Vocational Technical School”
Jackson State University Jackson Mississippi 1877 Public Founded as “Natchez Seminary” by the American Baptist Home Mission Society, became public in 1942
Jarvis Christian College Hawkins Texas 1912 Private The Disciples
Johnson C. Smith University Charlotte North Carolina 1867 Private Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Founded as “Biddle Memorial Institute”
Kentucky State University Frankfort Kentucky 1886 Public Founded as “State Normal School for Colored Persons”
Knoxville College Knoxville (Mechanicsville) Tennessee 1875 Private United Presbyterian Church of North America
Lane College Jackson Tennessee 1882 Private Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Founded as “Colored Methodist Episcopal High School”[9]
Langston University Langston Oklahoma 1897 Public Founded as “Oklahoma Colored Agricultural and Normal University”
Lawson State Community College Bessemer Alabama 1949 Public
LeMoyne-Owen College Memphis Tennessee 1862 Private United Church of Christ Founded as “LeMoyne Normal and Commercial School”[10](elementary school until 1870)
Lewis College of Business Detroit Michigan 1928 Private Founded as “Lewis Business College”[11]
Lincoln University Chester County Pennsylvania 1854 Public Founded as “Ashmun Institute”
Lincoln University of Missouri Jefferson City Missouri 1866 Public Founded as “Lincoln Institute”[12]
Livingstone College Salisbury North Carolina 1879 Private AME Zion Founded as “Zion Wesley Institute”
University of Maryland Eastern Shore Princess Anne Maryland 1886 Public Originally: Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Delaware Conference Academy”
Meharry Medical College Nashville Tennessee 1876 Private United Methodist Church Founded as the Medical Department of Central Tennessee College
Miles College Fairfield Alabama 1905 Private CME Church Known until 1941 as “Miles Memorial College”; named after Bishop William H. Miles
Mississippi Valley State University Itta Bena Mississippi 1950 Public Founded as “Mississippi Vocational College”
Morehouse College Atlanta Georgia 1867 Private Originally, American Baptist Home Mission Society Founded as “Augusta Institute”
Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta Georgia 1975 Private Founded originally as a part of Morehouse College
Morgan State University Baltimore Maryland 1867 Public Originally: Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Centenary Biblical Institute”
Morris Brown College Atlanta Georgia 1881 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church
Morris College Sumter South Carolina 1908 Private Baptist Educational and Missionary Convention
Norfolk State University Norfolk Virginia 1935 Public Founded as “Norfolk Unit of Virginia Union University”[13]
North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro North Carolina 1891 Public
North Carolina Central University Durham North Carolina 1910 Public Founded as “National Religious Training School andChautauqua
Oakwood University Huntsville Alabama 1896 Private Seventh-day Adventist Founded as “Oakwood Industrial School”
Paine College Augusta Georgia 1882 Private United Methodist Church and Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Founded as “Paine Institute”
Paul Quinn College Dallas Texas 1872 Private AME Church Named for William Paul Quinn
Philander Smith College Little Rock Arkansas 1877 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Walden Seminary”
Prairie View A&M University Prairie View Texas 1876 Public Founded as “Alta Vista Agriculture & Mechanical College for Colored Youth”[14]
Rust College Holly Springs Mississippi 1866 Private United Methodist Church Known as “Shaw University” until 1882
Saint Paul’s College Lawrenceville Virginia 1888 Private Protestant Episcopal Church Founded as “Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School”
Savannah State University Savannah Georgia 1890 Public Founded as “Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youth”
Selma University Selma Alabama 1878 Private Alabama State Missionary Baptist Convention Founded as “Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School”
Shaw University Raleigh North Carolina 1865 Private National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.
Shorter College Little Rock Arkansas 1886 Private African Methodist Episcopal Unaccredited two-year college; founded as “Bethel University”
Shelton State Community College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1952 Public Founded as “J.P. Shelton Trade School”
South Carolina State University Orangeburg South Carolina 1896 Public Founded as “Colored, Normal, Industrial, Agricultural, and Mechanical College of South Carolina”
Southern University at New Orleans New Orleans Louisiana 1959 Public Founded as a branch unit of Southern University in Baton Rouge
Southern University at Shreveport Shreveport Louisiana 1967 Public Part of the Southern University System
Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge Louisiana 1881 Public Conceptualized by P. B. S. Pinchback, T. T. Allain, and Henry Demas
Southwestern Christian College Terrell Texas 1948 Private Church of Christ Founded as “Southern Bible Institute”[15]
Spelman College Atlanta Georgia 1881 Private Originally, American Baptist Home Mission Society Founded as “Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary”
St. Augustine’s College Raleigh North Carolina 1867 Private Episcopal Church (United States)
St. Philip’s College San Antonio Texas 1898 Public Episcopal Church Founded as “St. Philip’s Sewing Class for Girls”[16]
Stillman College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1876 Private Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute, the College was a concept of Reverend Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church of Tuscaloosa[17]
Talladega College Talladega County Alabama 1867 Private United Church of Christ Known as “Swayne School” until 1869
Tennessee State University Nashville Tennessee 1912 Public Founded as “Agricultural and Industrial State Normal School”
Texas College Tyler Texas 1894 Private Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
Texas Southern University Houston Texas 1947 Public Founded as “Texas State University for Negroes”
Tougaloo College Hinds County Mississippi 1869 Private American Missionary Association Founded as “Tougaloo University”
Trenholm State Technical College Montgomery Alabama 1947 Public Founded as “John M. Patterson Technical School”[18]
Tuskegee University Tuskegee Alabama 1881 Private Founded as Tuskegee Institute, now a National Historic Site
University of the Virgin Islands St. Croix & St. Thomas United States Virgin Islands 1962 Public Founded as “College of the Virgin Islands”
Virginia State University Petersburg Virginia 1882 Public Founded as “Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute at Petersburg”
Virginia Union University Richmond Virginia 1864 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Wayland Seminary,” and merged with Richmond Institute (1865) in 1889[19]
Virginia University of Lynchburg Lynchburg Virginia 1886 Private Baptist Founded as “Lynchburg Baptist Seminary”
Voorhees College Denmark South Carolina 1897 Private Episcopal Church Founded as “Denmark Industrial School”
West Virginia State University Kanawha County West Virginia 1891 Public Founded as “West Virginia Colored Institute”
Wilberforce University Wilberforce Ohio 1856 Private AME Church Named for William Wilberforce
Wiley College Marshall Texas 1873 Private United Methodist Church Named for Isaac William Wiley
Winston-Salem State University Winston-Salem North Carolina 1892 Public Founded as “Slater Industrial and State Normal School”
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans Louisiana 1915 Private Roman Catholic Founding predecessor institutions: “St. Katharine Drexel” and the “Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament”

[edit]Defunct institutions

School City State Founded Type Religious Affiliation Comment
Bishop College Dallas Texas 1881 Private Home Mission Society Founded in Marshall, Texas; later moved to Dallas. Closed in 1988.
Daniel Payne College Birmingham Alabama 1889 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1979
Friendship College Rock Hill South Carolina 1891 Private Baptist Closed in 1981.
Guadalupe College Seguin Texas 1884 Private Texas Missionary Baptist General Convention Ceased operations after a fire destroyed the main building in 1936[20]
Kittrell College Kittrell North Carolina 1886 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1975
Leland University New Orleans Louisiana 1870 Private Home Mission Society Founded as a grade school in New Orleans, Leland was a Baker, Louisiana-based Baptist University when it closed in the 1970s
Mississippi Industrial College Holly Springs Mississippi 1905 Private Colored Methodist Episcopal Church; later called the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. Closed in 1982.
Mount Hermon Female Seminary Clinton Mississippi 1875 Private American Missionary Association Closed in 1924
Storer College Harpers Ferry West Virginia 1865 Private Founded by Freewill Baptist Missionary Society Closed in 1955. Its endowment was transferred to Virginia Union, where its alumni have been recognized, and its physical assets were given to Alderson-Broaddus College to create scholarships for black students.[19] Its former campus is now part of the Harpers Ferry National Historical Park [21]
Roger Williams College Nashville Tennessee 1864 Private Home Mission Society Closed in 1929
Western University (Kansas) Quindaro Kansas 1865 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1943


African American topics
Category · Portal
This box:

  1. ^ “White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities”. 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  2. ^ “Presidential Commission on Historically Black Colleges”.
  3. ^ Arkansas Baptist College Website
  4. ^ Central State University History
  5. ^ Clinton Junior College History
  6. ^ Denmark Technical College History Website
  7. ^ “History of Fisk”. Archived from the original on 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
  8. ^ Harris-Stowe State University Website
  9. ^ Lane College History Website
  10. ^ LeMoyne-Owen College History Website
  11. ^ Lewis College of Business Website
  12. ^ Lincoln University of Missouri Website
  13. ^ Norfolk State University History
  14. ^ Prairie View A&M University History
  15. ^ Southwestern Christian College History
  16. ^ St. Philip’s College History
  17. ^ “Stillman History”. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  18. ^ Trenholm State Technical College Website
  19. a b Hylton, Raymond. “University History”About Virginia Union. Virginia Union University. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  20. ^ “Guadalupe College: A Case History in Negro Higher Education 1884-1936”.
  21. ^ Storer College NPS


Rwanda revisited with Mahmood Mamdani’s When Victims Become Killers

Teaching African History or Politics this semester? Don’t forget to add “When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda” by Mahmood Mamdani to your suggested reading list.