Helicobacter pylori may be the most successful pathogen in human history. While not as deadly as the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, cholera, and the plague, it infects more people than all the others combined. H. pylori, which migrated out of Africa along with our ancestors, has been intertwined with our species for at least two hundred thousand years. Although the bacterium occupies half the stomachs on earth, its role in our lives was never clear. Then, in 1982, to the astonishment of the medical world, two scientists, Barry Marshall and J. Robin Warren, discovered that H. pylori is the principal cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers; it has since been associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer as well. Until that discovery, for which the men shared a Nobel Prize, in 2005, stress, not an infection, was assumed to be the major cause of peptic ulcers.
Doreen Lawrence has had a memorable year. Her 2012 began with the conviction of two of her son’s killers in January. In the summer she led out the Olympic flag and the year ends with her making plans to mark the 20th anniversary of her son’s death. She talks to Hugh Muir about her efforts to keep the Stephen Lawrence trust going and to maintain pressure to convict the other men involved in his murder
I have always maintained that women should have the right to choose what they want for themselves, as far as their lives go. I believe that if a woman wants to work and focus on her career, she has every right to, and where possible, I believe a woman should be able to stay home and focus on her family and home, if she so chooses. If a woman wants to remain single all her life, so be it. If a woman does not want children, I say “more power to [her]“.
The story follows Mona, a contemporary model, as she is visited by spirits lingering in the Cape Coast Castle in Ghana and travels to the past, where, as a house servant named Shola she is constantly abused by her slave masters. Nunu, an African-born field hand, and Shango, Shola’s West Indian love interest, all continuously rebel against the slave system. For Nunu this means direct conflict with her son (whose father is a white man) benefiting from the system as a head slave. Inspired by Nunu and Shango’s determination to defy the system, Shola finally chooses to fight back against her masters.”
ATLANTA — Three Atlanta-area counties have filed a lawsuit claiming that British bank HSBC cost them hundreds of millions of dollars in extra expenses and damage to their tax bases by aggressively signing minorities to housing loans that were likely to fail.
The Georgia counties’ failure or success with the relatively novel strategy could help determine whether other local governments try to hold big banks accountable for losses in tax revenue based on what they claim are discriminatory or predatory lending practices. Similar lawsuits resulted in settlements this year worth millions of dollars for communities in Maryland and Tennessee.