Mommafucious

Mommafucious: Final Thoughts for 2015, Part II

Rudin1Final Thoughts for 2015 Part II: This is part two because I know that tomorrow, there will be more uncluttered ruminations.

Facebook and Twitter Posts keep me informed. Unlike the little challenged Main St. local and national news, there are many voices. During the year they varied, became morose, battle scenes, rants then cheerleaders slip in their philosophical cheers for the day. Some are eternally happy, living in clouds. Their feet never touch the ground. We have the merchants, buy me or you will never know where it’s at. A popup IM. “Are you all right?” “How’s your day going?” “We are sisters.” “We are one.” Some send flowers and stolen memes. “Sent from the iPhone of…” Even more distant are the “I am beautiful.” “She is beautiful.” “LMAO” and the infamous “LOL.”
Twitter condenses life into 140 characters. It gives you just enough space to get to the point. Black Twitter and it’s coalescing body, Blavity has found a home at the Los Angeles Times news desk. Someone is paid to read your thoughts and track the wave a Blackness storming the globe. They are mostly young and eager to tell the world where we are at. Most interesting are the trolls that attach themselves to the #BlackTwitter hashtag simply to peek at the dang Black upstarts. Remember, if they are angry you must be doing something right.
Election year “I am running for…” Trump boasts that he paid little in advertisement. Everyone in their weakest moment gasped at his barbs, posted them in succession along with video footage of his latest interview. “Mr. Trump, would you explain …” We sit on a perch waiting for the next go round of a news cycle.
Bernie Sanders proved to me that “it’s not the dog in the fight; it’s the fight in the dog.” Lately, he asked for and raised $2,000,000 in small campaign contributions from the masses in two days. And he is still humble enough to hug Hilary Clinton. That might the reason. Another charming quality about Bernie is that when confronted by Black Lives Matter and the racial equality agenda, he didn’t do as most politicians. He didn’t lock his jaw, roll his eyes, clutch the pearls, and ignore. Bernie took note, if only in rhetoric. But rhetoric has proven to matter also.
Local politics was profane in 2015. We saw familiar faces and blood-soaked fingers pat ringwormed heads, curled their lips, and chided activists’ bad behavior. One NY politician chose to ignore. Why is that profane to me? It reminds me of the Liberal and Black politicians that can only tell the Black community all of the world’s problems are that I don’t vote. Not toxic site dumping in poor and minority neighborhoods, large and small producers spewing toxins into the air to ramp up climate change, not education disparities and marginalization, not even that they are worthless beings and don’t give a damn as long as they have a job until the next election cycle. Check history. If Blacks vote too much, “conservatives” (Oh my god, that word) burn the town down. I do vote, by the way.
I never thought “outsiders” would become the dirtiest word amid the flames of protest. But it was. One woman stood amidst a burning city and a neatly drawn chalk line to proclaim they had never had a problem in their town until outsiders infiltrated their ranks. It was clear that she was the one that posted the “Bless this house” meme that went across the country more than 60,000 times.
My timeline oozed Black historical figures and Black achievements. The greatest achievement this year, however, was the realization that despite all of the blood shed for the cause, there is still much blood left to go around. Most of it, no one will notice. They are all scrapbooking the black and white photos of those they will never emulate; pretending ties to philosophy righteousness has long put to rest. I’m waiting to see what else is contrived for Black History Month this February. Danielle Colin’s beautiful, “Dreaming in Kreyol” sits on my nightstand. I wonder how many centuries will go by before I see an academic critique. Will her photo be in color?
The most interesting are the young traversing grounds they swear are new and innovative. I once asked a woman sitting still, drinking, and smiling through her 40’s with years of destruction around her how she can do such a thing. “I’ve done all that before,” was her answer. 20 years later, I understand. That is why she sits.
dreaminginKreyol
Photos… oh they are called selfies now. This is my moratorium to what you missed. I read articles that claim people who post selfies are narcissistic. I think selfies tell the world how much they are missed. How small we feel in vast spaces, even in our own bathrooms. Not everyone smiles. The fearful ones sometimes but mostly never smile. The haughty contort their faces in some kind of grotesque pout mimicking their last black and white photo in the scrapbook. Still, the most grotesque are withered beings covered in masquerade hats and feathers. They try to bring it back. But bring what back? We will never know.
Videos are more time consuming but are the most revealing. The Walmart and WorldStar are the best. The police shootings informative. The baby in the cage – the worst. You might have a better take on this, but for me watching modern America go up in flames as the displaced find our borders for refuge is historic. The only difference between then and now is video. Hang a bulb on the tree and call it done.
This holiday season… Should I say holiday? Are you offended? Should I be specific, exclusive – pick my side in the war of holidays this year? Can’t I just sing because I am happy? Or do I have to choose a happiness – a mirror of yours? Ok then… I choose Christmas, Hanukkah, Kwanza, and all of the many visions of celebration the world has to offer tied in a pink and yellow box with black ribbon. I am sending it out to all of you without exclusion, discrimination, history, or -ism. This is how we prove to ourselves that we are still human – above the beast. Convention, stability in an unstable world. So preserve some of your humanity in a tree, a candle, a bowl of fruit. It makes no difference to the lion, the mouse, the elephant, the spider – they are all assured in their civility and grandeur without symbols.

 

 

Mommafucious: Final Thoughts for 2015, Part I

AAWomenLit
Final Thoughts for 2015 Part I: This is part one because I know that tomorrow, there will be more uncluttered ruminations.
I am taking this note from my grandson, who cleanses himself when needed on these pages, and then goes out and does wonderful things. I love you, Anthony King.
Paying close attention to what people say and do has its challenges. No one wants you to look that hard. They want to remain shadows behind one institution or a few if they are lucky. Most people are accustomed to the “assess,” “call,” and “response;” and treat the rest of the world in kind.
Throwing a ham sandwich to the man sleeping by the side of the road, we assume he is hungry. Yet he has merely fallen asleep after a long day. Hey, those ham sandwiches make great Sunday testimonies; the pillars propping up our goodness.
I once walked out of a meeting, where I was President. One of many times, I vacated spaces that looked totally ridiculous. It taught me more about what I was willing to tolerate than the spaces harboring seductive paradigms. My breaking points were all exposed. They are the letter and stories waiting on my desk to be completed. They are the pedicures, bike rides, cocktail sips, and all of life’s other miracles that get lost playing in Jezebel’s funhouse.
I considered one of the marches through town for peace until I realized the ridiculousness of asking for peace from a non-violent violent people. Luckily, I did not waste the time. They were the wrong group. That evening after the march, at least a mile away from the city’s hotspot, a sacred one beat a police officer almost to death. He is still considered civil, just a bad day. No need for a march. Two lines on the blotter.
And speaking of violence, which is better; a paper cut or a knife wound?
Violence is when you look like me and give me a book to read with most of the pages torn out.
Or invite me to supper and give me the same ham sandwich that you tossed to the homeless man.
Or offer to buy the concert tickets and only can afford the bleeder seats, assuming I wouldn’t notice.
Or announcing an empowerment meeting where there are 20 minutes of lineage for every 2 minutes of substance. I could’ve had a pedicure, fool.
Or the receptionist at the school principal’s office demanding to know where I was last week (Business trip), when I asked to see the principal about a matter my husband took care of while I was away. Yes bitch, someone does pay me to travel.
Better yet, when you retire and return to college and folks reference you to their derelict relative that didn’t know it was time to grow up until they started graying.
Or expecting me at 40 to champion a club where the only events are funerals every week and members show up with oxygen tanks to fill the seats. What ever happened to sick and shut-in? Now that is violence.

African American Labor| Labor Day #OYRchallenge

Black workers

Field laborers

Today, September 1, 2014, is Labor Day; a national holiday in the United States. After reading articles of 21st century celebrations that forbid non-union workers from participating, it saddens me. We have made claims to a post-racial country. Talk of racism at this juncture are vehemently criticized, even in light of disparities in African American economic, social, and political power in relation to majority populations. The further insult come especially today when we as African Americans post messages, photos, articles, and other material congratulating America’s unions, when much of the substantive foundations in America was built on African American forced labor. We also forget the history of labor unions in this country.

blksteelworker

Factory Workers

Labor unions protected majority workers. African Americans were forbidden to join in its inception. I remember reading a paper on the struggle. During one strike, when African Americans were finally allowed to join American unions, the union forbade African Americans to picket alongside White members. After African Americans protested, they were allowed to form separate lines in order to participate in the union action. To this day, with the Affirmative Action policies in place, unions work with corporations to control the African American employee’s job security, positions, and employment situations, especially during economic upheaval in America.

So, why do we cherish entities that marginalize us throughout history? The story is long and contrived, but this video pays homage to the original laborers and the strongest population of people in America – African American workers. Thank you for carving out a beautiful, yet still volatile landscape for me to play.

Dick Gregory|”The State of the Black Union 2008: Reclaiming Our Democracy, Deciding Our Future” took place in the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center Conference Auditorium in New Orleans. #OYRchallenge

The first of 4 videos featuring Dick Gregory.

The “Own Your Racist” Challenge #OYRchallenge

What is the OYR challenge?

African Americans have been at war – mentally, physically, economically, and socially ever since the first African was dragged from a slave ship onto the American shores. The volumes of histories (European and African American), movies, television series, news reports, studies, and other publications serve as qualitative evidence to support this claim. It has always been the strategy of Racist and their racist collaborators (African American pseudo-intellectuals) to present the resulting body count as isolated or individual incidents to be argued within the confines of the criminal justice system, race discussion forums, and/or the same models used to maintain White Supremacy. Truth-be-told, these systems have eroded and the people lax into comfort that the myth of Black powerlessness is firmly in place. They have secured the veil with a 21stcentury Bi-racial President of their choosing, replacing the Civil Rights icons. Every playbook must be revised. Our young are inundated with slave songs, yet no one drills them with the principals that created Black Wall Street and other past ultra-wealthy and sound communities. There are only so many times African American children can attend the funeral of a murdered/lynched family member, friend or neighbor, buried with Amazing Grace and “I Have A Dream,” before they stop listening.

21st century African American youths acknowledge that they are human and know that humans are fallible. In a 1992 televised panel discussion, The Issue is Race, Sister Souljah points to the need for Black empowerment and business. She also points out that every municipality has their game in place to crush African American businesses much more easily now than with the attack on Black Wall St. Crime in the African American community, the most readily used silencing cue in the racist toolbox, reflects that humanity and the substantive pressures placed on that humanity. Our young in 2014 Ferguson, MI reformed the messages of African American history that racist and African American collaborators use to teach them powerlessness. Yet, take a look at how school systems are now trying to formulate a methodology to discuss the current events in Ferguson and other cities. Why control the conversation? For the same reason our children in African American venues are taught slave songs instead of empowering verse? Our dialogue needs to be controlled to include silencing, powerless training. Some HBCU institutions provide tools to exude our power, along with that the history lesson. The intelligent heed the message, the fearful and mediocre cite statistics, the European face of government, and class conscious models of respectability politics to quell their cognitive dissonance. But that dissonance also creates race-collaborators. This is also human. Fear is human.

To get you through this challenge, we need to revisit and establish in our lives how we accommodate, participate, and sometimes instigate our own demise. Here is the catch, if your town has no industry that will support your degree as well as your Africanism, there are always government positions available. And those who become a part of the machine (thinking they can make change from within), soon become THE MACHINE, despite their good intentions. Get over them … but do not give them a pass. Racist tactics are methodical complete with literature and verbal cues that African Americans are trained to absorb and respond to appropriately. Within this context, we must not forget that on an individual level, racist are confident that whatever their mistakes, there is a cue (crazy toolbox) to combat African American claims to racist attack and the victim will disregard their rights within that transaction. Add an insecure, incompetent collaborator and you have a cocktail for a now seemingly powerless victim.

I want to give you an example of using your power effectively within this context. The necessary back story is that in our region, African Americans rarely challenge the most minute situations, so racist have an exceptional comfort zone (no visible support for Trayvon Martin in public view). As the city fell into economic decline, the mayor initiated a campaign to bring a specific immigrant ethnicity to the area from New York City (I will not name the specific population; it is not about them) to purchase property and strengthen the communities. The specific ethnicity bought into the American slovenly African American stereotype for their benefit, and similar to Rwandan (Hutu/Tutsi) conflict, they assumed a position in our communities as a buffer and caste between the racist White population and the African American community. This actually occurred right after the 1994 Rwandan genocideand subsequent literature highlighting the European strategy that set the immigrant against the indigenous population (Mamdani, 2001)

While in college, I cashed my student loan checks at a local branch of the University’s banking institution, as I had done many semester previously. I approached the teller window, and handed her the check, along with my driver’s photo ID. The teller, immigrant woman, scowled at ID, turned it over, scowled again, then asked for a second form of ID. I then gave her my University photo ID bearing the same name and insignia as on the check. Her reaction was the same as with my driver’s license. She sighed and continued to scowl, leaning on her elbow on the counter, with no movement to either decline or process my transaction. I then grew impatient and asked for the bank manager. The teller was aghast. Apparently, she felt a stool in the bank afforded her power that I had no right to challenge. I reiterated, “I have no more to say to you.  It is obvious that you are not familiar with US identifications and should not hold this position. Please call the manager.” When the bank manager arrived, I informed her of the teller’s inability to read legal documents and that such deficiencies should have been addressed at her job interview. Furthermore, her behaviors may open the bank up to future lawsuits and other damages. The red-faced bank manager “shoved” the teller aside and promptly completed my transaction. By the way, said teller is now working at McDonalds. A brightly smiling young black male has taken her place on the stool.

So here is your challenge. There are two parts.

Part I: At least once per day, approach your racial encounters with power. Inner power. Victories, no matter how small, are the key to this challenge – no hubris, retaliations, pettiness, or abuses exude power or is the aim of this challenge (put away your crazy toolbox; not needed here). This can only be done if you follow principles that we ourselves will create during this adventure. There are a few listed to get you started.

  • We are human.
  • In our humanity, we fail, but as humans we are resilient and rise stronger.
  • Remember, racist gain their power in OUR acceptance of dehumanizing media, literature, slurs, and behaviors on their part.
  • We must know the laws and devices used to counter those laws that work in our benefit, during ANY transaction.
  • We must examine, in any situation, where and how we must exude our power effectively, and when racist malaise will cause them to empower YOU.
  • Recognize oppressive methodology, no matter who attempts it – these 4 indicators may help: Insult, Deny, Threaten, and Attack (these are all a part of the verbal cues). Find them in yourself first, and then you will recognize these tactics in others.
  • Act with a sound, still mind. If you become flustered, BREATHE, SING, or whatever you have to do to get back on track. It may seem crazy to the offender or allow them to feel momentarily “uber” empowered, but the whopper you will deliver will soon change that.
  • Most importantly, never, ever take your failure to control any situation as defeat. Remember, you were trained how to be powerless (regardless of how much Black literature you read or education). Regroup and fortify yourself for the next encounter, and you will recognize more of them as you learn to live as a citizen, instead of props in someone else’s theater.

Part II: You MUST develop your own strategies through these contacts and expand on these few lines with posts using the hashtag, #OYRchallenge. Your stories are important as they energize those too weak to accept this challenge. Start with the meager crumbs I have put before you and together we will create a banquet.

The alternative to this challenge is this – continue doing what you are doing expecting different results. Hence, buy a scooter to carry your crazy toolbox. It will only get heavier.

Mahmood Mamdani. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

#OYRchallenge – Nico & Vinz – Am I Wrong [Official Music Video]

The Own Your Racist Challenge #OYRchallenge

What is the OYR challenge?

African Americans have been at war – mentally, physically, economically, and socially ever since the first African was dragged from a slave ship onto the American shores. The volumes of histories (European and African American), movies, television series, news reports, studies, and other publications serve as qualitative evidence to support this claim. It has always been the strategy of Racist and their racist collaborators (African American pseudo-intellectuals) to present the resulting body count as isolated or individual incidents to be argued within the confines of the criminal justice system, race discussion forums, and/or the same models used to maintain White Supremacy. Truth-be-told, these systems have eroded and the people lax into comfort that the myth of Black powerlessness is firmly in place. They have secured the veil with a 21st century Bi-racial President of their choosing, replacing the Civil Rights icons. Every playbook must be revised. Our young are inundated with slave songs, yet no one drills them with the principals that created Black Wall Street and other past ultra-wealthy and sound communities. There are only so many times African American children can attend the funeral of a murdered/lynched family member, friend or neighbor, buried with Amazing Grace and “I Have A Dream,” before they stop listening.

21st century African American youths acknowledge that they are human and know that humans are fallible. In a 1992 televised panel discussion, The Issue is Race, Sister Souljah points to the need for Black empowerment and business. She also points out that every municipality has their game in place to crush African American businesses much more easily now than with the attack on Black Wall St. Crime in the African American community, the most readily used silencing cue in the racist toolbox, reflects that humanity and the substantive pressures placed on that humanity. Our young in 2014 Ferguson, MI reformed the messages of African American history that racist and African American collaborators use to teach them powerlessness. Yet, take a look at how school systems are now trying to formulate a methodology to discuss the current events in Ferguson and other cities. Why control the conversation? For the same reason our children in African American venues are taught slave songs instead of empowering verse? Our dialogue needs to be controlled to include silencing, powerless training. Some HBCU institutions provide tools to exude our power, along with that the history lesson. The intelligent heed the message, the fearful and mediocre cite statistics, the European face of government, and class conscious models of respectability politics to quell their cognitive dissonance. But that dissonance also creates race-collaborators. This is also human. Fear is human.

To get you through this challenge, we need to revisit and establish in our lives how we accommodate, participate, and sometimes instigate our own demise. Here is the catch, if your town has no industry that will support your degree as well as your Africanism, there are always government positions available. And those who become a part of the machine (thinking they can make change from within), soon become THE MACHINE, despite their good intentions. Get over them … but do not give them a pass. Racist tactics are methodical complete with literature and verbal cues that African Americans are trained to absorb and respond to appropriately. Within this context, we must not forget that on an individual level, racist are confident that whatever their mistakes, there is a cue (crazy toolbox) to combat African American claims to racist attack and the victim will disregard their rights within that transaction. Add an insecure, incompetent collaborator and you have a cocktail for a now seemingly powerless victim.

I want to give you an example of using your power effectively within this context. The necessary back story is that in our region, African Americans rarely challenge the most minute situations, so racist have an exceptional comfort zone (no visible support for Trayvon Martin in public view). As the city fell into economic decline, the mayor initiated a campaign to bring a specific immigrant ethnicity to the area from New York City (I will not name the specific population; it is not about them) to purchase property and strengthen the communities. The specific ethnicity bought into the American slovenly African American stereotype for their benefit, and similar to Rwandan (Hutu/Tutsi) conflict, they assumed a position in our communities as a buffer and caste between the racist White population and the African American community. This actually occurred right after the 1994 Rwandan genocide and subsequent literature highlighting the European strategy that set the immigrant against the indigenous population (Mamdani, 2001)

While in college, I cashed my student loan checks at a local branch of the University’s banking institution, as I had done many semester previously. I approached the teller window, and handed her the check, along with my driver’s photo ID. The teller, immigrant woman, scowled at ID, turned it over, scowled again, then asked for a second form of ID. I then gave her my University photo ID bearing the same name and insignia as on the check. Her reaction was the same as with my driver’s license. She sighed and continued to scowl, leaning on her elbow on the counter, with no movement to either decline or process my transaction. I then grew impatient and asked for the bank manager. The teller was aghast. Apparently, she felt a stool in the bank afforded her power that I had no right to challenge. I reiterated, “I have no more to say to you.  It is obvious that you are not familiar with US identifications and should not hold this position. Please call the manager.” When the bank manager arrived, I informed her of the teller’s inability to read legal documents and that such deficiencies should have been addressed at her job interview. Furthermore, her behaviors may open the bank up to future lawsuits and other damages. The red-faced bank manager “shoved” the teller aside and promptly completed my transaction. By the way, said teller is now working at McDonalds. A brightly smiling young black male has taken her place on the stool.

So here is your challenge. There are two parts.

Part I: At least once per day, approach your racial encounters with power. Inner power. Victories, no matter how small, are the key to this challenge – no hubris, retaliations, pettiness, or abuses exude power or is the aim of this challenge (put away your crazy toolbox; not needed here). This can only be done if you follow principles that we ourselves will create during this adventure. There are a few listed to get you started.

  • We are human.
  • In our humanity, we fail, but as humans we are resilient and rise stronger.
  • Remember, racist gain their power in OUR acceptance of dehumanizing media, literature, slurs, and behaviors on their part.
  • We must know the laws and devices used to counter those laws that work in our benefit, during ANY transaction.
  • We must examine, in any situation, where and how we must exude our power effectively, and when racist malaise will cause them to empower YOU.
  • Recognize oppressive methodology, no matter who attempts it – these 4 indicators may help: Insult, Deny, Threaten, and Attack (these are all a part of the verbal cues). Find them in yourself first, and then you will recognize these tactics in others.
  • Act with a sound, still mind. If you become flustered, BREATHE, SING, or whatever you have to do to get back on track. It may seem crazy to the offender or allow them to feel momentarily “uber” empowered, but the whopper you will deliver will soon change that.
  • Most importantly, never, ever take your failure to control any situation as defeat. Remember, you were trained how to be powerless (regardless of how much Black literature you read or education). Regroup and fortify yourself for the next encounter, and you will recognize more of them as you learn to live as a citizen, instead of props in someone else’s theater.

Part II: You MUST develop your own strategies through these contacts and expand on these few lines with posts using the hashtag, #OYRchallenge. Your stories are important as they energize those too weak to accept this challenge. Start with the meager crumbs I have put before you and together we will create a banquet.

The alternative to this challenge is this – continue doing what you are doing expecting different results. Hence, buy a scooter to carry your crazy toolbox. It will only get heavier.

Mahmood Mamdani. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

MACKLEMORE & RYAN LEWIS – CAN’T HOLD US FEAT. RAY DALTON (OFFICIAL MUSIC VIDEO) #OYRchallenge

The “Own Your Racist” Challenge #OYRchallenge

What is the OYR challenge?

African Americans have been at war – mentally, physically, economically, and socially ever since the first African was dragged from a slave ship onto the American shores. The volumes of histories (European and African American), movies, television series, news reports, studies, and other publications serve as qualitative evidence to support this claim. It has always been the strategy of Racist and their racist collaborators (African American pseudo-intellectuals) to present the resulting body count as isolated or individual incidents to be argued within the confines of the criminal justice system, race discussion forums, and/or the same models used to maintain White Supremacy. Truth-be-told, these systems have eroded and the people lax into comfort that the myth of Black powerlessness is firmly in place. They have secured the veil with a 21st century Bi-racial President of their choosing, replacing the Civil Rights icons. Every playbook must be revised. Our young are inundated with slave songs, yet no one drills them with the principals that created Black Wall Street and other past ultra-wealthy and sound communities. There are only so many times African American children can attend the funeral of a murdered/lynched family member, friend or neighbor, buried with Amazing Grace and “I Have A Dream,” before they stop listening.

21st century African American youths acknowledge that they are human and know that humans are fallible. In a 1992 televised panel discussion, The Issue is Race, Sister Souljah points to the need for Black empowerment and business. She also points out that every municipality has their game in place to crush African American businesses much more easily now than with the attack on Black Wall St. Crime in the African American community, the most readily used silencing cue in the racist toolbox, reflects that humanity and the substantive pressures placed on that humanity. Our young in 2014 Ferguson, MI reformed the messages of African American history that racist and African American collaborators use to teach them powerlessness. Yet, take a look at how school systems are now trying to formulate a methodology to discuss the current events in Ferguson and other cities. Why control the conversation? For the same reason our children in African American venues are taught slave songs instead of empowering verse? Our dialogue needs to be controlled to include silencing, powerless training. Some HBCU institutions provide tools to exude our power, along with that the history lesson. The intelligent heed the message, the fearful and mediocre cite statistics, the European face of government, and class conscious models of respectability politics to quell their cognitive dissonance. But that dissonance also creates race-collaborators. This is also human. Fear is human.

To get you through this challenge, we need to revisit and establish in our lives how we accommodate, participate, and sometimes instigate our own demise. Here is the catch, if your town has no industry that will support your degree as well as your Africanism, there are always government positions available. And those who become a part of the machine (thinking they can make change from within), soon become THE MACHINE, despite their good intentions. Get over them … but do not give them a pass. Racist tactics are methodical complete with literature and verbal cues that African Americans are trained to absorb and respond to appropriately. Within this context, we must not forget that on an individual level, racist are confident that whatever their mistakes, there is a cue (crazy toolbox) to combat African American claims to racist attack and the victim will disregard their rights within that transaction. Add an insecure, incompetent collaborator and you have a cocktail for a now seemingly powerless victim.

I want to give you an example of using your power effectively within this context. The necessary back story is that in our region, African Americans rarely challenge the most minute situations, so racist have an exceptional comfort zone (no visible support for Trayvon Martin in public view). As the city fell into economic decline, the mayor initiated a campaign to bring a specific immigrant ethnicity to the area from New York City (I will not name the specific population; it is not about them) to purchase property and strengthen the communities. The specific ethnicity bought into the American slovenly African American stereotype for their benefit, and similar to Rwandan (Hutu/Tutsi) conflict, they assumed a position in our communities as a buffer and caste between the racist White population and the African American community. This actually occurred right after the 1994 Rwandan genocide and subsequent literature highlighting the European strategy that set the immigrant against the indigenous population (Mamdani, 2001)

While in college, I cashed my student loan checks at a local branch of the University’s banking institution, as I had done many semester previously. I approached the teller window, and handed her the check, along with my driver’s photo ID. The teller, immigrant woman, scowled at ID, turned it over, scowled again, then asked for a second form of ID. I then gave her my University photo ID bearing the same name and insignia as on the check. Her reaction was the same as with my driver’s license. She sighed and continued to scowl, leaning on her elbow on the counter, with no movement to either decline or process my transaction. I then grew impatient and asked for the bank manager. The teller was aghast. Apparently, she felt a stool in the bank afforded her power that I had no right to challenge. I reiterated, “I have no more to say to you.  It is obvious that you are not familiar with US identifications and should not hold this position. Please call the manager.” When the bank manager arrived, I informed her of the teller’s inability to read legal documents and that such deficiencies should have been addressed at her job interview. Furthermore, her behaviors may open the bank up to future lawsuits and other damages. The red-faced bank manager “shoved” the teller aside and promptly completed my transaction. By the way, said teller is now working at McDonalds. A brightly smiling young black male has taken her place on the stool.

So here is your challenge. There are two parts.

Part I: At least once per day, approach your racial encounters with power. Inner power. Victories, no matter how small, are the key to this challenge – no hubris, retaliations, pettiness, or abuses exude power or is the aim of this challenge (put away your crazy toolbox; not needed here). This can only be done if you follow principles that we ourselves will create during this adventure. There are a few listed to get you started.

  • We are human.
  • In our humanity, we fail, but as humans we are resilient and rise stronger.
  • Remember, racist gain their power in OUR acceptance of dehumanizing media, literature, slurs, and behaviors on their part.
  • We must know the laws and devices used to counter those laws that work in our benefit, during ANY transaction.
  • We must examine, in any situation, where and how we must exude our power effectively, and when racist malaise will cause them to empower YOU.
  • Recognize oppressive methodology, no matter who attempts it – these 4 indicators may help: Insult, Deny, Threaten, and Attack (these are all a part of the verbal cues). Find them in yourself first, and then you will recognize these tactics in others.
  • Act with a sound, still mind. If you become flustered, BREATHE, SING, or whatever you have to do to get back on track. It may seem crazy to the offender or allow them to feel momentarily “uber” empowered, but the whopper you will deliver will soon change that.
  • Most importantly, never, ever take your failure to control any situation as defeat. Remember, you were trained how to be powerless (regardless of how much Black literature you read or education). Regroup and fortify yourself for the next encounter, and you will recognize more of them as you learn to live as a citizen, instead of props in someone else’s theater.

Part II: You MUST develop your own strategies through these contacts and expand on these few lines with posts using the hashtag, #OYRchallenge. Your stories are important as they energize those too weak to accept this challenge. Start with the meager crumbs I have put before you and together we will create a banquet.

The alternative to this challenge is this – continue doing what you are doing expecting different results. Hence, buy a scooter to carry your crazy toolbox. It will only get heavier.

Mahmood Mamdani. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Own Your Racist challenge, #OYRchallenge

The “Own Your Racist” Challenge #OYRchallenge

What is the OYR challenge?

African Americans have been at war – mentally, physically, economically, and socially ever since the first African was dragged from a slave ship onto the American shores. The volumes of histories (European and African American), movies, television series, news reports, studies, and other publications serve as qualitative evidence to support this claim. It has always been the strategy of Racist and their racist collaborators (African American pseudo-intellectuals) to present the resulting body count as isolated or individual incidents to be argued within the confines of the criminal justice system, race discussion forums, and/or the same models used to maintain White Supremacy. Truth-be-told, these systems have eroded and the people lax into comfort that the myth of Black powerlessness is firmly in place. They have secured the veil with a 21st century Bi-racial President of their choosing, replacing the Civil Rights icons. Every playbook must be revised. Our young are inundated with slave songs, yet no one drills them with the principals that created Black Wall Street and other past ultra-wealthy and sound communities. There are only so many times African American children can attend the funeral of a murdered/lynched family member, friend or neighbor, buried with Amazing Grace and “I Have A Dream,” before they stop listening.

21st century African American youths acknowledge that they are human and know that humans are fallible. In a 1992 televised panel discussion, The Issue is Race, Sister Souljah points to the need for Black empowerment and business. She also points out that every municipality has their game in place to crush African American businesses much more easily now than with the attack on Black Wall St. Crime in the African American community, the most readily used silencing cue in the racist toolbox, reflects that humanity and the substantive pressures placed on that humanity. Our young in 2014 Ferguson, MI reformed the messages of African American history that racist and African American collaborators use to teach them powerlessness. Yet, take a look at how school systems are now trying to formulate a methodology to discuss the current events in Ferguson and other cities. Why control the conversation? For the same reason our children in African American venues are taught slave songs instead of empowering verse? Our dialogue needs to be controlled to include silencing, powerless training. Some HBCU institutions provide tools to exude our power, along with that the history lesson. The intelligent heed the message, the fearful and mediocre cite statistics, the European face of government, and class conscious models of respectability politics to quell their cognitive dissonance. But that dissonance also creates race-collaborators. This is also human. Fear is human.

To get you through this challenge, we need to revisit and establish in our lives how we accommodate, participate, and sometimes instigate our own demise. Here is the catch, if your town has no industry that will support your degree as well as your Africanism, there are always government positions available. And those who become a part of the machine (thinking they can make change from within), soon become THE MACHINE, despite their good intentions. Get over them … but do not give them a pass. Racist tactics are methodical complete with literature and verbal cues that African Americans are trained to absorb and respond to appropriately. Within this context, we must not forget that on an individual level, racist are confident that whatever their mistakes, there is a cue (crazy toolbox) to combat African American claims to racist attack and the victim will disregard their rights within that transaction. Add an insecure, incompetent collaborator and you have a cocktail for a now seemingly powerless victim.

I want to give you an example of using your power effectively within this context. The necessary back story is that in our region, African Americans rarely challenge the most minute situations, so racist have an exceptional comfort zone (no visible support for Trayvon Martin in public view). As the city fell into economic decline, the mayor initiated a campaign to bring a specific immigrant ethnicity to the area from New York City (I will not name the specific population; it is not about them) to purchase property and strengthen the communities. The specific ethnicity bought into the American slovenly African American stereotype for their benefit, and similar to Rwandan (Hutu/Tutsi) conflict, they assumed a position in our communities as a buffer and caste between the racist White population and the African American community. This actually occurred right after the 1994 Rwandan genocide and subsequent literature highlighting the European strategy that set the immigrant against the indigenous population (Mamdani, 2001)

While in college, I cashed my student loan checks at a local branch of the University’s banking institution, as I had done many semester previously. I approached the teller window, and handed her the check, along with my driver’s photo ID. The teller, immigrant woman, scowled at ID, turned it over, scowled again, then asked for a second form of ID. I then gave her my University photo ID bearing the same name and insignia as on the check. Her reaction was the same as with my driver’s license. She sighed and continued to scowl, leaning on her elbow on the counter, with no movement to either decline or process my transaction. I then grew impatient and asked for the bank manager. The teller was aghast. Apparently, she felt a stool in the bank afforded her power that I had no right to challenge. I reiterated, “I have no more to say to you.  It is obvious that you are not familiar with US identifications and should not hold this position. Please call the manager.” When the bank manager arrived, I informed her of the teller’s inability to read legal documents and that such deficiencies should have been addressed at her job interview. Furthermore, her behaviors may open the bank up to future lawsuits and other damages. The red-faced bank manager “shoved” the teller aside and promptly completed my transaction. By the way, said teller is now working at McDonalds. A brightly smiling young black male has taken her place on the stool.

So here is your challenge. There are two parts.

Part I: At least once per day, approach your racial encounters with power. Inner power. Victories, no matter how small, are the key to this challenge – no hubris, retaliations, pettiness, or abuses exude power or is the aim of this challenge (put away your crazy toolbox; not needed here). This can only be done if you follow principles that we ourselves will create during this adventure. There are a few listed to get you started.

  • We are human.
  • In our humanity, we fail, but as humans we are resilient and rise stronger.
  • Remember, racist gain their power in OUR acceptance of dehumanizing media, literature, slurs, and behaviors on their part.
  • We must know the laws and devices used to counter those laws that work in our benefit, during ANY transaction.
  • We must examine, in any situation, where and how we must exude our power effectively, and when racist malaise will cause them to empower YOU.
  • Recognize oppressive methodology, no matter who attempts it – these 4 indicators may help: Insult, Deny, Threaten, and Attack (these are all a part of the verbal cues). Find them in yourself first, and then you will recognize these tactics in others.
  • Act with a sound, still mind. If you become flustered, BREATHE, SING, or whatever you have to do to get back on track. It may seem crazy to the offender or allow them to feel momentarily “uber” empowered, but the whopper you will deliver will soon change that.
  • Most importantly, never, ever take your failure to control any situation as defeat. Remember, you were trained how to be powerless (regardless of how much Black literature you read or education). Regroup and fortify yourself for the next encounter, and you will recognize more of them as you learn to live as a citizen, instead of props in someone else’s theater.

Part II: You MUST develop your own strategies through these contacts and expand on these few lines with posts using the hashtag, #OYRchallenge. Your stories are important as they energize those too weak to accept this challenge. Start with the meager crumbs I have put before you and together we will create a banquet.

The alternative to this challenge is this – continue doing what you are doing expecting different results. Hence, buy a scooter to carry your crazy toolbox. It will only get heavier.

Mahmood Mamdani. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

VoiceOver | Riots Reframed Documentary [TRAILER] – YouTube

VoiceOver | Riots Reframed Documentary [TRAILER] – YouTube.

Commentary from VoiceOver: Riots Reframed

SCREENING DATES ON WEBSITE – http://riotsreframed.com 

Keep up to date by liking the Facebook page [http://facebook.com/VoiceOverRiots], following on Twitter [http://twitter.com/RiotsReframed] and keeping an eye on the website [http://riotsreframed.com]

Riots Reframed is a feature-length documentary which reframes England’s 2011 riots through voices of resistance — threading these perspectives together using moody instrumentals, dramatic monologue and raw spoken word. This hard-hitting film is unique both in its scope and the journey that produced it.

The idea was conceived soon after the producer, Fahim Alam, was released from prison on bail, after being arrested for taking part in riots. With virtually no knowledge of filming and editing, he set out to make an independent and complex documentary. Most of it was filmed whilst Fahim wore an ankle tag and was subject to a strict curfew as he awaited trial for the charge of ‘violent disorder’.

The documentary takes the viewer through a journey that begins in Tottenham and spirals out to a detailed look at the role of police, power, racism, government, prison, war, resistance and more.

Although the voices base their analysis around the riots, the scope of Riots Reframed is much wider and stands in its own right as a poetic but fierce challenge to the system we live under and the suffering it produces. The result is a radical social commentary grounded in knowledge and art, that synthesises a number of voices, from prominent social, cultural and political analysts, to prisoners still recovering from time inside.

VoiceOver | Riots Reframed is simultaneously engaging, informative, thought-provoking, emotion-stirring, and importantly, a challenge to the media institutions that serve the narrative of the power structure. This film is a historical document not to be missed.

Beware: Bride Dies After Taking Bath Salts To Lose Weight | The 360 Experiment

Public Service Announcement:  Bath Salts have been linked to flesh-eating diseases, cannibalism and just flat out dying on the spot.  This woman learned the lesson the hard way, but spread the message so it doesn’t happen to anyone else.

via Beware: Bride Dies After Taking Bath Salts To Lose Weight | The 360 Experiment.

List of historically black colleges and universities – From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

School City State Founded Type Religious Affiliation Comment
Alabama A&M University Huntsville Alabama 1875 Public Founded as “Colored Normal School at Huntsville”
Alabama State University Montgomery Alabama 1867 Public Founded as “Lincoln Normal School of Marion”
Albany State University Albany Georgia 1903 Public Founded as “Albany Bible and Manual Training Institute”
Alcorn State University Lorman Mississippi 1871 Public Founded as “Alcorn University” in honor of James L. Alcorn
Allen University Columbia South Carolina 1870 Private African Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Payne Institute”
University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff Pine Bluff Arkansas 1873 Public Founded as “Branch Normal College”
Arkansas Baptist College Little Rock Arkansas 1884 Private Baptist Founded as “Minister’s Institute”[3]
Barber-Scotia College Concord North Carolina 1867 Private Presbyterian Founded as two institutions, Scotia Seminary and Barber Memorial College
Benedict College Columbia South Carolina 1870 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Benedict Institute”
Bennett College Greensboro North Carolina 1873 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Bennett Seminary”
Bethune-Cookman University Daytona Beach Florida 1904 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Bethune Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls”
Bishop State Community College Mobile Alabama 1927 Public Originally a branch of Alabama State College
Bluefield State College Bluefield West Virginia 1895 Public Founded as “Bluefield Colored Institute”
Bowie State University Bowie Maryland 1865 Public Founded as “Baltimore Normal School”
Central State University Wilberforce Ohio 1887 Public AME Church Originally a department at Wilberforce University[4]
Cheyney University of Pennsylvania Cheyney Pennsylvania 1837 Public The oldest HBCU. Founded by Quaker philanthropist Richard Humphreys as “Institute for Colored Youth”
Claflin University Orangeburg South Carolina 1869 Private United Methodist Church
Clark Atlanta University Atlanta Georgia 1865 Private United Methodist Church Originally two institutions, Clark College and Atlanta University
Clinton Junior College Rock Hill South Carolina 1894 Private AME Zion Founded as “Clinton Institute”[5]
Coahoma Community College Coahoma County Mississippi 1924 Public Founded as “Coahoma County Agricultural High School”
Concordia College, Selma Selma Alabama 1922 Private Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod Known as “Alabama Lutheran Academy and Junior College” until 1981
Coppin State University Baltimore Maryland 1900 Public Founded as “Colored High School”
Delaware State University Dover Delaware 1891 Public Founded as “The State College for Colored Students”
Denmark Technical College Denmark South Carolina 1947 Public Founded as “Denmark Area Trade School”[6]
Dillard University New Orleans Louisiana 1869 Private United Church of Christand the United Methodist Church Founding predecessor institutions: “Straight University” and “Union Normal School”
University of the District of Columbia Washington District of Columbia 1851 Public Founded as “Miner Normal School”
Edward Waters College Jacksonville Florida 1866 Private AME Church Founded as “Brown Theological Institute”
Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth City North Carolina 1891 Public
Fayetteville State University Fayetteville North Carolina 1867 Public Founded as “Howard School”
Fisk University Nashville Tennessee 1866 Private United Church of Christ[7] Named for Clinton Bowen Fisk
Florida A&M University Tallahassee Florida 1887 Public Founded as “State Normal College for Colored Students”
Florida Memorial University Miami Gardens Florida 1879 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Florida Baptist Institute in Live Oak”
Fort Valley State University Fort Valley Georgia 1895 Public Founded as “Fort Valley High and Industrial School”
Gadsden State Community College Gadsden Alabama 1925 Public Founded as “Alabama School of Trades”
Grambling State University Grambling Louisiana 1901 Public Founded as “Colored Industrial and Agricultural School”
Hampton University Hampton Virginia 1868 Private Founded as “Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute”
Harris-Stowe State University St. Louis Missouri 1857 Public Founded as “St. Louis Normal School”[8]
Hinds Community College at Utica Utica Mississippi 1903 Public Founded as “Utica Junior College”
Howard University Washington District of Columbia 1867 Private Founded as “Howard Normal and Theological School for the Education of Teachers and Preachers”
Huston-Tillotson University Austin Texas 1881 Private United Methodist Church /United Church of Christ Founded as “Tillotson Collegiate and Normal Institute”
Interdenominational Theological Center Atlanta Georgia 1958 Private Interdenominational
J. F. Drake State Technical College Huntsville Alabama 1961 Public Founded as “Huntsville State Vocational Technical School”
Jackson State University Jackson Mississippi 1877 Public Founded as “Natchez Seminary” by the American Baptist Home Mission Society, became public in 1942
Jarvis Christian College Hawkins Texas 1912 Private The Disciples
Johnson C. Smith University Charlotte North Carolina 1867 Private Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Founded as “Biddle Memorial Institute”
Kentucky State University Frankfort Kentucky 1886 Public Founded as “State Normal School for Colored Persons”
Knoxville College Knoxville (Mechanicsville) Tennessee 1875 Private United Presbyterian Church of North America
Lane College Jackson Tennessee 1882 Private Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Founded as “Colored Methodist Episcopal High School”[9]
Langston University Langston Oklahoma 1897 Public Founded as “Oklahoma Colored Agricultural and Normal University”
Lawson State Community College Bessemer Alabama 1949 Public
LeMoyne-Owen College Memphis Tennessee 1862 Private United Church of Christ Founded as “LeMoyne Normal and Commercial School”[10](elementary school until 1870)
Lewis College of Business Detroit Michigan 1928 Private Founded as “Lewis Business College”[11]
Lincoln University Chester County Pennsylvania 1854 Public Founded as “Ashmun Institute”
Lincoln University of Missouri Jefferson City Missouri 1866 Public Founded as “Lincoln Institute”[12]
Livingstone College Salisbury North Carolina 1879 Private AME Zion Founded as “Zion Wesley Institute”
University of Maryland Eastern Shore Princess Anne Maryland 1886 Public Originally: Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Delaware Conference Academy”
Meharry Medical College Nashville Tennessee 1876 Private United Methodist Church Founded as the Medical Department of Central Tennessee College
Miles College Fairfield Alabama 1905 Private CME Church Known until 1941 as “Miles Memorial College”; named after Bishop William H. Miles
Mississippi Valley State University Itta Bena Mississippi 1950 Public Founded as “Mississippi Vocational College”
Morehouse College Atlanta Georgia 1867 Private Originally, American Baptist Home Mission Society Founded as “Augusta Institute”
Morehouse School of Medicine Atlanta Georgia 1975 Private Founded originally as a part of Morehouse College
Morgan State University Baltimore Maryland 1867 Public Originally: Methodist Episcopal Founded as “Centenary Biblical Institute”
Morris Brown College Atlanta Georgia 1881 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church
Morris College Sumter South Carolina 1908 Private Baptist Educational and Missionary Convention
Norfolk State University Norfolk Virginia 1935 Public Founded as “Norfolk Unit of Virginia Union University”[13]
North Carolina A&T State University Greensboro North Carolina 1891 Public
North Carolina Central University Durham North Carolina 1910 Public Founded as “National Religious Training School andChautauqua
Oakwood University Huntsville Alabama 1896 Private Seventh-day Adventist Founded as “Oakwood Industrial School”
Paine College Augusta Georgia 1882 Private United Methodist Church and Christian Methodist Episcopal Church Founded as “Paine Institute”
Paul Quinn College Dallas Texas 1872 Private AME Church Named for William Paul Quinn
Philander Smith College Little Rock Arkansas 1877 Private United Methodist Church Founded as “Walden Seminary”
Prairie View A&M University Prairie View Texas 1876 Public Founded as “Alta Vista Agriculture & Mechanical College for Colored Youth”[14]
Rust College Holly Springs Mississippi 1866 Private United Methodist Church Known as “Shaw University” until 1882
Saint Paul’s College Lawrenceville Virginia 1888 Private Protestant Episcopal Church Founded as “Saint Paul Normal and Industrial School”
Savannah State University Savannah Georgia 1890 Public Founded as “Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youth”
Selma University Selma Alabama 1878 Private Alabama State Missionary Baptist Convention Founded as “Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School”
Shaw University Raleigh North Carolina 1865 Private National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc.
Shorter College Little Rock Arkansas 1886 Private African Methodist Episcopal Unaccredited two-year college; founded as “Bethel University”
Shelton State Community College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1952 Public Founded as “J.P. Shelton Trade School”
South Carolina State University Orangeburg South Carolina 1896 Public Founded as “Colored, Normal, Industrial, Agricultural, and Mechanical College of South Carolina”
Southern University at New Orleans New Orleans Louisiana 1959 Public Founded as a branch unit of Southern University in Baton Rouge
Southern University at Shreveport Shreveport Louisiana 1967 Public Part of the Southern University System
Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge Louisiana 1881 Public Conceptualized by P. B. S. Pinchback, T. T. Allain, and Henry Demas
Southwestern Christian College Terrell Texas 1948 Private Church of Christ Founded as “Southern Bible Institute”[15]
Spelman College Atlanta Georgia 1881 Private Originally, American Baptist Home Mission Society Founded as “Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary”
St. Augustine’s College Raleigh North Carolina 1867 Private Episcopal Church (United States)
St. Philip’s College San Antonio Texas 1898 Public Episcopal Church Founded as “St. Philip’s Sewing Class for Girls”[16]
Stillman College Tuscaloosa Alabama 1876 Private Founded as Tuscaloosa Institute, the College was a concept of Reverend Dr. Charles Allen Stillman, pastor of First Presbyterian Church of Tuscaloosa[17]
Talladega College Talladega County Alabama 1867 Private United Church of Christ Known as “Swayne School” until 1869
Tennessee State University Nashville Tennessee 1912 Public Founded as “Agricultural and Industrial State Normal School”
Texas College Tyler Texas 1894 Private Christian Methodist Episcopal Church
Texas Southern University Houston Texas 1947 Public Founded as “Texas State University for Negroes”
Tougaloo College Hinds County Mississippi 1869 Private American Missionary Association Founded as “Tougaloo University”
Trenholm State Technical College Montgomery Alabama 1947 Public Founded as “John M. Patterson Technical School”[18]
Tuskegee University Tuskegee Alabama 1881 Private Founded as Tuskegee Institute, now a National Historic Site
University of the Virgin Islands St. Croix & St. Thomas United States Virgin Islands 1962 Public Founded as “College of the Virgin Islands”
Virginia State University Petersburg Virginia 1882 Public Founded as “Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute at Petersburg”
Virginia Union University Richmond Virginia 1864 Private American Baptist Churches USA Founded as “Wayland Seminary,” and merged with Richmond Institute (1865) in 1889[19]
Virginia University of Lynchburg Lynchburg Virginia 1886 Private Baptist Founded as “Lynchburg Baptist Seminary”
Voorhees College Denmark South Carolina 1897 Private Episcopal Church Founded as “Denmark Industrial School”
West Virginia State University Kanawha County West Virginia 1891 Public Founded as “West Virginia Colored Institute”
Wilberforce University Wilberforce Ohio 1856 Private AME Church Named for William Wilberforce
Wiley College Marshall Texas 1873 Private United Methodist Church Named for Isaac William Wiley
Winston-Salem State University Winston-Salem North Carolina 1892 Public Founded as “Slater Industrial and State Normal School”
Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans Louisiana 1915 Private Roman Catholic Founding predecessor institutions: “St. Katharine Drexel” and the “Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament”

[edit]Defunct institutions

School City State Founded Type Religious Affiliation Comment
Bishop College Dallas Texas 1881 Private Home Mission Society Founded in Marshall, Texas; later moved to Dallas. Closed in 1988.
Daniel Payne College Birmingham Alabama 1889 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1979
Friendship College Rock Hill South Carolina 1891 Private Baptist Closed in 1981.
Guadalupe College Seguin Texas 1884 Private Texas Missionary Baptist General Convention Ceased operations after a fire destroyed the main building in 1936[20]
Kittrell College Kittrell North Carolina 1886 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1975
Leland University New Orleans Louisiana 1870 Private Home Mission Society Founded as a grade school in New Orleans, Leland was a Baker, Louisiana-based Baptist University when it closed in the 1970s
Mississippi Industrial College Holly Springs Mississippi 1905 Private Colored Methodist Episcopal Church; later called the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church. Closed in 1982.
Mount Hermon Female Seminary Clinton Mississippi 1875 Private American Missionary Association Closed in 1924
Storer College Harpers Ferry West Virginia 1865 Private Founded by Freewill Baptist Missionary Society Closed in 1955. Its endowment was transferred to Virginia Union, where its alumni have been recognized, and its physical assets were given to Alderson-Broaddus College to create scholarships for black students.[19] Its former campus is now part of the Harpers Ferry National Historical Park [21]
Roger Williams College Nashville Tennessee 1864 Private Home Mission Society Closed in 1929
Western University (Kansas) Quindaro Kansas 1865 Private African Methodist Episcopal Church Closed in 1943

[edit]References

African American topics
Category · Portal
This box:

  1. ^ “White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities”. 2008-04-11. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
  2. ^ “Presidential Commission on Historically Black Colleges”.
  3. ^ Arkansas Baptist College Website
  4. ^ Central State University History
  5. ^ Clinton Junior College History
  6. ^ Denmark Technical College History Website
  7. ^ “History of Fisk”. Archived from the original on 2007-10-28. Retrieved 2008-03-01.
  8. ^ Harris-Stowe State University Website
  9. ^ Lane College History Website
  10. ^ LeMoyne-Owen College History Website
  11. ^ Lewis College of Business Website
  12. ^ Lincoln University of Missouri Website
  13. ^ Norfolk State University History
  14. ^ Prairie View A&M University History
  15. ^ Southwestern Christian College History
  16. ^ St. Philip’s College History
  17. ^ “Stillman History”. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  18. ^ Trenholm State Technical College Website
  19. a b Hylton, Raymond. “University History”About Virginia Union. Virginia Union University. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  20. ^ “Guadalupe College: A Case History in Negro Higher Education 1884-1936”.
  21. ^ http://www.nps.gov/hafe/historyculture/storer-college.htm Storer College NPS